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Konon Eagles
Konon Eagles

The War Against The Jews: 1933-1945 __LINK__

Raul Hilberg, widely considered to be one of the world's preeminent Holocaust scholars,[2][3][4] published his three-volume, 1,273-page magnum opus, The Destruction of the European Jews, in 1961; this work is regarded today as a seminal study of the Nazi Final Solution. Hilberg notes that Dawidowicz not only ignored The Destruction's findings in The War Against the Jews, but also went on to exclude mention of him in her historiographic work, The Holocaust and the Historians, published in 1981. Hilberg's work, running as it did against the grain of intentionalist thinking, was widely unpopular among many early scholars, a contrast to later views. It is argued that Davidowicz, a renowned intentionalist, simply ignored Hilberg's work in order to follow an academically safer path, avoiding controversy by avoiding functionalist conclusions like those drawn by Hilberg. "She wanted preeminence," Hilberg writes.[5]

The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945

There were valorous efforts to resist the Holocaust. A number of armed uprisings in the ghettos and camps surprised the Nazis, but all were put down with fanatical brutality. Some Jews escaped ghettos and joined partisan movements fighting against the Nazis from forest enclaves. Within the ghettos and the killing camps, acts of defiance, small or large, were suppressed and the brave dissidents savagely punished.

The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 by Lucy S. Dawidowicz. Tenth Anniversary Edition, With a New Introduction and Updated Bibliography. New York and London: Seth Press, dist. by The Free Press/Macmillan. 466 pp. $$22.95. Lucy Dawidowicz's classic account of the Nazis' destruction of European Jewry was first published in 1975. In contrast to a surprising number of books about the period that present this genocide as an unfortunate excess of wartime, Dawidowicz's meticulously researched and strongly argued history provides definitive proof of the extent to which elimination of Jews was an integral part of Hitler's master plan. The first section of her book deals with the ``Final Solution'' from the vantage point of those who planned and implemented it. The second section deals with the Holocaust as experienced by the Jews who were its primary - though not its only - victims.

88 SHOFAR Spring 1996 Vol. 14, No.3 FRENCH AND AMERICAN STUDIES OF THE SHOAH: A COMPARISON by Karla Grierson Karla Grierson, a native of Brandon, Manitoba, teaches French literature at the University of Cergy-Pontoise in France. She is presently finishing a doctoral dissertation at the University of Paris IlIon accounts by survivors of Auschwitz. I. Political and ethno-religious focus: "Holocaust literature" vs. litterature concentrationnaire In comparing commentary and research relating to the ramifications of National Socialist (hereafter, NS1 ) crime in France and the United States, the most important difference between scholarly approaches in the two countries concerns the identification of the object of inquiry. In other words, what has been recognized in America as "Holocaust literature" and "Holocaust studies" since at least 19702 is still best known in France under the less specific heading of litterature concentrationnaire . When I say "less specific," I am alluding to the tendency to downplay the fact that specifically Jews were targeted for NS deporta11 prefer this abbreviation, commonly used among current-day German intellectuals, to the term "Nazi, which has taken on lurid, B-movie associations. 2Irving Halperin, MeSSe1lgers from the Dead: Literature of the Holocaust (philadelphia : Westminster, 1970) is the earliest American study that I know of. Halperin discusses texts written after the war by Jewish survivors of NS deportation and genocide such as Primo Levi and Elie Wiesel, as well as documents written during the war (Chaim Kaplan's Warsaw Ghetto diary, for example). French and American Studies of the Shoah 89 tion, labor and concentration camps and killing centers.3 This specificity is expressed by the terms "Holocaust" and "Shoah," which refer directly to the genocide perpetrated against the Jews of Europe! Until approximately the mid-1980s-when there occurred a change of paradigm, in which the decisive event was probably the release of Claude Lanzmann's film Shoah in spring 1985-French scholars and intellectuals, as well as the public, seem to have half-ignored the fact that the NS deportation and extermination campaign was largely what Lucy Dawidowicz has astutely called it: a "war against the Jews.,,5 The expressions litterature concentrationnaire and univers concentrationnaire , borrowed from David Rousset's testimony and analysis of the same name concerning his experience in Buchenwald, echo a far more political than ethno-religious perception of the event.6 The reasons behind this focus may be traced back at least partially to the body of testimony written in France. French historian Annette Wieviorka has explained that the initial wave of these documents, written and published immediately after the war, may be divided into three categories: ontological, political, and patriotic.7 They present the NS deportation and extermination campaign respectively as an outgrowth 3"Killing centers" is the tenn devised by Raul Hilberg, The Destrw.:tion of the European Jews, rev. and definitive ed., 3 vols. (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985 [orig. ed. 1961)), pp. 361-989 et passim. 'Preferring not to partake in the debate concerning the tenninology to be employed when naming the NS deportation and genocide of the European Jews ("Holocaust," "Shoah," "Khurbn," "Catastrophe," "Event," "AuschWitz," etc.), 1 have chosen to use interchangeably the two most widely accepted, "Holocaust" (usual in North America) and "Shoah" (habitual in France). "Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War against the Jews 1933-1945 (London: Penguin, 1990 [orig. ed. 1975)). 6David Rousset, L'univers coru:tmtratiormaire (paris: Minuit, 1965 [orig. ed. 1946)). English trans. by Ramon Guthrie, The Other Kingdom (New York: Fertig, 1982 [orig. ed. 1947)). 7Annette Wieviorka, Deportation et genocide: entre Za mbnoire et Z'oubli (paris: PIon, 1992), p. 317. See as well Wieviorka, "Jewish Identity in the First Accounts by Extennination Camp Survivors from France," trans. Frano.ise Rosset, in Alan Astro, ed., Discourses ofJewish Identity in Twentieth-Cefltury France (Yale Freru:h Studies 85 (1994)), pp. 135-51. 90 SHOFAR Spring 1996 Vol. 14, No.3 of human nature,S a political phenomenon9 or a demonstration of German barbarity,lO giving no quaner to the analysis of the genocide perpetrated against Jews per se. As Wieviorka points out: These uses of memory leave no room for the genocide of the Jews. None of these visions is capable of integrating...

"Books about Nazism are endless, but The War Against the Jews comes to us as a major work of synthesis, providing for the first time a full account of the Holocaust. . . . Dawidowicz has produced a work of high scholarship and profound moral impact."-Irving Howe, front page review in The New York Times Book Review Here is the unparalleled account of the most awesome and awful chapter in the moral history of humanity. Lucid, chilling and comprehensive, Lucy S. Dawidowicz's classic tells the complete story of the Nazi Holocaust-from the insidious evolution of German Anti-Semitism to the ultimate tragedy of the Final Solution. "A literary-historical shocker . . . Lucy S. Dawidowicz lifts the bloodstained curtain from Germany's war against the Jews."-Houston Post

8. At the center of the Holocaust Era, is the _______, a specific event in the 20th century history: the systematic, deliberate, state-sponsored, bureaucratic destruction of nearly 6 million Jews, a third of the world’s Jewish population, killed for no other reason than that they were Jews, by the Nazi regime & its collaborators, between the years 1933-1945. a) Sho’ah b) deicide9. Because Nazi discrimination against the Jews began with Hitler's accession to power in January 1933, many historians consider this the start of a) the Holocaust era b) World War II10. They were the only group that the Nazis sought to destroy entirely a) the political opponents b) the Jews11. The first step of genocide is _____________ , treating certain groups of people differently. The second step is _______ such as the physical segregation of minorities in ghettos or setting up separate schools. The third step is _______, followed by _____ and ______ . a) discrimination, isolation; persecution, dehumanization, violence b) inclusion, equalization; imprisonment, torture, hanging 12. Genocide, the deliberate and systematic extermination of a group of people, is the ultimate expression of human __________. a) love b) hatred13. The destructive will (Vernichtungswill) of the Nazis was aimed at the totality of the ______ as ______, and consequently the victims included women, children, and old people a) Jews b) prisoners14. These victims, with the exception of Finland, were from every country/area defeated by or politically linked to the Germans: a) Poland, Austria, France, North Africa, Italy ... b) England, Australia, Japan ...15. Daniel Goldhagen's Hitler's Willing Executioners aroused a great deal of debate in 1996 with its suggestion that __________were in fact responsible for the Holocaust, zealously carrying out orders to execute Jews rather than being coerced by their leaders a) ordinary Germans b) sadist soldiers16. But the fact remains that antisemitism, much less ethnic hatred in general, was not unique to Germany. Jews were historically persecuted as a) scapegoats b) mentally ill17. The emergence of ______________ as the dominant religion in Europe intensified the persecution of Jews, who were seen as outcasts, satanic, the deniers & "killers" of Christ a) Islam b) Christianity18. A forged book, _____________, published in 1900 and proven to be a fraud led to the belief that there was a Jewish world domination plot a) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion b) World Domination by the Jews19. The picture of the Jews encountered in Nazi propaganda was drawn, in part, from a long tradition of antisemitism; ‘Crucifixion,’ Modern Germany crucified by the Jew, in a) the newspaper, Der Stuermer, 1939, no.4 b) the newspaper, Le Monde, 1951, no. 420. Hitler was able to exploit antisemitic feelings. His plan to do so was spelled out in ______ in 1924 (written during his short stay in prison for a failed coup) a) Mein Kampf b) Judenfrei21. Hitler felt that the Jews were an evil that was at the root of Germany's problems & must therefore be eliminated, claimed that Germany never really lost World War I, but was stabbed in the back by a ____________/Communist conspiracy a) Jewish b) Protestant 22. The Holocaust would only be made possible because of the active participation or ____________ of many groups & individuals, 1st within Germany, then in Austria and later in other countries under Nazi occupation a) passive compliance b) active overwhelming resistance23. The Nazis were not interested in _______ Jews to Christianity, because they viewed the Jews in purely racial terms a) converting b) imprisoning24. The Holocaust Era refers to the period from January 30, _____ when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, to May 8, _____ (V-E Day), the end of the war in Europe, during which there was an assault on Humanity, by the Nazi regime and their collaborators and followers a) 1933, 1945 b) 1946, 195625. Two major periods of the Holocaust Era can be discerned, the ________________, from the Nazi accession to power to the beginning of Germany’s military expansion, and the ____________ a) Prewar period, 1933-1939. Period of World War II, Sept. 1939-May 1945 b) 1946-1949. 1949-195626. Systematic prejudice against Jews. Notice the absence of a hyphen (-) a) Antisemitism b) Antifascism27. In the Nazi ideology, the pure, superior Germanic (Nordic, Caucasian) race a) Aryan b) Caucasian 041b061a72


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